Which Micronutrients Are Value Monitoring? (Episode 121)


Introduction (0:00)

 Suggestions and good vibes (0:20)

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 Announcement for subsequent episode: get your questions in for an all-Q&A episode! (8:06)

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Entering into the content material; discussing the distinction between inadequate consumption and poor consumption/standing. (13:40)

  • Episode 1 within the Micronutrient sequence
  • Episode 2 within the Micronutrients sequence
  • Touchdown web page for micronutrient articles

Content material mentioned on this episode:

  • Which Micronutrients Are Value Monitoring?
  • Micronutrients Are Essential, However They Aren’t All the pieces
  • Touchdown web page for micronutrient content material within the KB

 Vitamins which can be usually overconsumed (21:52)

  • Chart summarizing content material on this part

Added sugar

  • USDA: Get the Info: Added Sugars | Vitamin | CDC
  • NHS: Sugar: the info – NHS
  • AHA: Dietary sugars consumption and cardiovascular well being: a scientific assertion from the American Coronary heart Affiliation

Saturated fats

  • Consumption within the US: Saturated Fats and Meals Intakes of Adults – FSRG Dietary Information Briefs – NCBI Bookshelf
  • Consumption within the EU: Saturated fats consumption throughout the EU, Norway and the UK | Information for coverage
  • Greater intakes related to extra CVD: Saturated fats and trans-fat intakes and their substitute with different macronutrients: a scientific assessment and meta-analysis of potential observational research
  • Saturated fats will increase LDL ldl cholesterol: Results of saturated fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a scientific assessment and regression evaluation
  • Decreasing LDL reduces CVD with a robust dose-response relationship, suggesting causation: Affiliation Between Reducing LDL-C and Cardiovascular Danger Discount Amongst Completely different Therapeutic Interventions: A Systematic Evaluation and Meta-analysis | Cardiology | JAMA


  • Sodium consumption and stroke: Affiliation of sodium consumption and main cardiovascular outcomes: a dose-response meta-analysis of potential cohort research
  • Replace on analysis associated to different illnesses: The affect of extreme salt consumption on human well being

Excluded: Omega-6

  • Irritation: Omega-6 fatty acids and irritation
  • Human well being outcomes: Omega‐6 fat for the first and secondary prevention of heart problems – Hooper, L – 2018 | Cochrane Library
  • Nutrivore article: A Complete Rebuttal to Seed Oil Sophistry

Excluded: Trans Fat

  • Trans Fat | MacroFactor

Vitamins which can be steadily under-consumed (44:14)

A lot of the knowledge associated to under-consumed vitamins got here from these sources:

  • Micronutrient Inadequacies within the US Inhabitants: an Overview | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State College
  • Projected prevalence of insufficient nutrient intakes in Europe
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids – Well being Skilled Reality Sheet
  • Ought to I be consuming extra fiber? – Harvard Well being
  • Choline – Well being Skilled Reality Sheet

Extra on particular person vitamins

  • Fiber: Dietary Fats | MacroFactor
  • Omega 3s: Omega-3 EPA | MacroFactor, Omega-3 DHA | MacroFactor
  • Vitamin A: Vitamin A (Retinol) | MacroFactor
  • Vitamin B6: Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) | MacroFactor
  • Folate: Folate (Vitamin B9) | MacroFactor
  • Vitamin C: Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) | MacroFactor
  • Vitamin D: Vitamin D (Calciferol) | MacroFactor
  • Vitamin E: Vitamin E (Tocopherol) | MacroFactor
  • EFSA publication on Vitamin E: Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values  for vitamin E as α-tocopherol
  • Vitamin Okay: Vitamin Okay (Phylloquinone and Menaquinone)
  • Choline: Choline | MacroFactor
  • Magnesium: Magnesium | MacroFactor
  • Potassium: Potassium | MacroFactor
  • Zinc: Zinc | MacroFactor

 Vitamins vegans could need to pay extra consideration to (1:08:46)

  • Omega 3s: 
    • Omega-3 EPA | MacroFactor
    • Omega-3 DHA | MacroFactor
  • Particular person Amino Acids (primarily lysine, methionine, and tryptophan):
    • Lysine | MacroFactor
    • Methionine | MacroFactor
    • Tryptophan | MacroFactor
  • B12: Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) | MacroFactor
  • Calcium, Iron, Zinc, and Selenium:
    • Iron Standing of Vegetarian Adults: A Evaluation of Literature – PMC
    • Consumption and adequacy of the vegan weight-reduction plan. A scientific assessment of the proof
    • Calcium | MacroFactor
    • Iron | MacroFactor
    • Zinc | MacroFactor
    • Selenium | MacroFactor

 Remember to keep away from “micronutrient reductionism” (1:21:58)

  • Polyphenols: The Function of Polyphenols in Human Well being and Meals Methods: A Mini-Evaluation – PMC
  • Isothiocyanates: Isothiocyanates | Linus Pauling Institute

 Q&A (1:37:49)

Are multivitamins overrated? (1:38:37)

  • 2013 meta: Multivitamin-multimineral supplementation and mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized managed trials
  • Subsequent metas: Vitamin and Mineral Dietary supplements for the Main Prevention of Cardiovascular Illness and Most cancers: Up to date Proof Report and Systematic Evaluation for the US Preventive Companies Job Power | Cardiology | JAMA, Affiliation of Multivitamin and Mineral Supplementation and Danger of Cardiovascular Illness | Circulation
  • 2020 BMJ narrative assessment: Well being results of vitamin and mineral dietary supplements | The BMJ
  • Calcium + vitamin D for fractures: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and danger of fractures: an up to date meta-analysis from the Nationwide Osteoporosis Basis

 Is low blood vitamin D usually the results of another underlying drawback? (1:57:33)

  • Barbell drugs episode: Episode #152: Vitamin D with Dr. Austin Baraki
  • Related analysis/perspective papers:
    • Actual‐world proof for the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in discount of whole and trigger‐particular mortality
    • Low vitamin D is a marker for poor well being and elevated danger for illness: However causality continues to be unclear most often | JIM
    • Vitamin D: well being panacea or false prophet?
    • Vitamin D deficiency 2.0: an replace on the present standing worldwide – PMC
    • Vitamin D: a damaging acute section reactant | Journal of Scientific Pathology
    • Vitamin D and Most cancers | IARC
    • Skeletal and Extraskeletal Actions of Vitamin D: Present Proof and Excellent Questions
    • Optimum vitamin D standing: a essential evaluation on the idea of evidence-based drugs

Are there any good proxy measurements to know in the event you’re assembly micronutrient targets without having to trace micronutrients? (2:09:19)

Folic acid supplementation when making an attempt to get pregnant (2:12:38)

  • 2011 assessment: Folic Acid Meals Fortification—Its Historical past, Impact, Issues, and Future Instructions – PMC
  • 2022 paper arguing for international folate fortification: Stopping delivery defects, saving lives, and selling well being fairness: an pressing name to motion for common obligatory meals fortification with folic acid
  • Letter to the editor calling for warning towards common fortification: Necessary meals fortification with folic acid – The Lancet International Well being

Proof of vitamin Okay together with vitamin D and Boron supplementation (2:21:04)

Vitamin Okay

  • Optimistic epidemiological analysis: Vitamin Okay Consumption and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Illness within the Danish Weight loss plan Most cancers and Well being Research
  • Much less readability from interventions at present: Vitamin Okay Supplementation for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Illness: The place Is the Proof? A Systematic Evaluation of Managed Trials


  • NIH factsheet: Boron – Well being Skilled Reality Sheet
  • 2015 cheerleading assessment: Nothing Boring About Boron | IMCJ
  • Look web page: Boron well being advantages, dosage, security, unwanted effects, and supporting proof. | Dietary supplements | Look at
  • Essential observe: at one level when answering the query associated to boron, I referenced dosages of 2g and 500mg. I meant 2mg and 500mcg. Don’t take 2g (and even 500mg) of boron.

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